Burn Pit Locations
During the post-9/11 era, the United States military operated large burn pits to dispose of waste at forward operating bases in countries in Southwest Asia – including Iraq and Afghanistan – and certain other areas listed on the burn pits map above.
Military Burn Pits: What Was Burned?
From 2002 until 2009, there were no regulations for what could or could not be burned. Therefore, many of the items burned were extremely hazardous and toxic. U.S. military veterans within the vicinity of these burn pits were exposed to plumes of toxic smoke, leading to potentially long-term, serious health effects.
The following are just some of the many items incinerated in the military burn pits:
- Airplane parts
- Oil and gas
- Vehicle parts
- Plastic chemical drums
- Fluorescent bulbs
- N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET)-soaked tents
- Medical waste
- Pesticide containers
- Coated electrical wires
- Bloody gauze
- Weapons and munitions
- Aerosol cans
- Flame Resistant Organizational Gear (FROG) suits
Toxic Chemicals at Joint Base Balad in Iraq
As shown in the burn pits map above, the largest burn pit – at Joint Base Balad in Iraq – expanded to an area of almost 20 acres. At its peak, it burned about 200 tons of solid waste every day.
The Balad burn pit emitted hundreds of toxic chemicals, exposing veterans to highly contaminated air. Veterans experienced acute symptoms due to the smoke exposure, including reddened eyes, persistent coughs, and irritated respiratory passages. According to reports released about the Joint Base Balad burn pit, the emitted toxins can also lead to long-term and potentially severe health effects.
The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) conducted air samplings at this base, in which the following pollutants were detected:
1. Particulate Matter
Particulate matter is a mixture of tiny particles and droplets (e.g., dust, dirt, smoke, or soot) polluting the air. Some particles are visible to the human eye while others are so small only electron microscopes can detect them.
If inhaled, particulate matter can burrow deep into the lungs and even infiltrate the bloodstream, leading to serious health effects. According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), health effects may include cardiac arrhythmias, heart attacks, asthma attacks and other respiratory effects, and even premature death.
2. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, or PAHs, consist of more than 100 different chemicals produced during the incomplete burning of coal, oil, gas, garbage, and other organic substances.
The DoD detected the following PAHs during testing at Balad:
PAHs may lead to long-term health effects, such as cataracts, kidney and liver damage, jaundice, the breakdown of red blood cells, and more.
3. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
Volatile organic compounds, or VOCs, are often human-made chemicals found in paints, pharmaceuticals, and refrigerants. They are also components of petroleum fuels, hydraulic fluids, and dry-cleaning agents. VOCs contain a variety of chemicals, some which may have long- or short-term health effects.
Some VOCs detected were:
- Carbon Disulfide
- Methylene Chloride
According to the EPA, long-term health effects of VOCs may include liver, kidney, and central nervous system damage, different forms of cancer, and more.
4. Toxic Organic Halogenated Dioxins and Furans
Toxic organic halogenated dioxins and furans are known to persist in the environment and have harmful health effects. Dioxins are also commonly associated with herbicides, such as Agent Orange.
The following dioxins and furans were detected at Balad:
- 1,2,3,4,6,7,8 HPCDD
- 1,2,3,4,6,7,8 HPCDF
- 1,2,3,4,7,8,9 HPCDF 1,2,3,4,7,8 HXCDD
- 1,2,3,4,7,8 HXCDF
- 1,2,3,6,7,8 HXCDD
- 1,2,3,6,7,8 HXCDF
- 1,2,3,7,8,9 HXCDD
- 1,2,3,7,8,9 HXCDF
- 1,2,3,7,8 PECDD
- 1,2,3,7,8 PECDF
- 2,3,4,6,7,8 HXCDF
- 2,3,4,7,8 PECDF
- 2,3,7,8 TCDD (the most toxic dioxin)
- 2,3,7,8 TCDF
Highly toxic dioxins may cause numerous health effects, including cancer, reproductive and developmental problems, and damage to the immune system.
Burn Pits in Iraq, Afghanistan, and Djibouti
Over the years, documented studies have offered brief insights into burn pit locations, namely in Iraq, Afghanistan, and Djibouti.
In 2006, an Enhanced Particulate Matter Surveillance Program (EPMSP) conducted at 15 sites – including locations in Iraq, Afghanistan, Djibouti, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, and Kuwait – determined that particulate matter in these areas was most likely from geologic dusts, burn pits, and metal sources.
Additionally, DoD reports have suggested that large military bases in Iraq and Afghanistan produced approximately 60,000 to 80,000 pounds of solid waste per day. This waste was most likely incinerated in massive burn pits at these sites.
Iraq Burn Pit Locations
According to the DoD – although data was not made available for all the U.S. military sites – as of November 2009, 14 out of the 41 existing small military sites, 30 of the 49 medium-size sites, and 19 out of the 25 large sites all had operating burn pits. The number of burn pits in Iraq has since declined.
- FOB Al Walid
- FOB Bernstein, Tikrit
- FOB Black, Fallujah
- FOB Brassfield-Mora, Samarra
- FOB Caldwell, Diyala Province
- FOB Cedar II, Nasiriyah
- FOB Cobra, Diyala Province
- FOB Danger, Tikrit
- FOB Delta, Kut
- FOB Dibis (outside Kirkuk)
- FOB Endurance (Qayyarah Airfield West/Saddam Air Base)
- FOB Falcon, Camp Al-Saqr
- FOB Freedom, Kirkuk
- FOB Gabe, Baqubah
- FOB Gaines Mills, Kirkuk
- FOB Garry Owen, Al Amarah
- FOB Grizzly / Camp Ashraf
- FOB Hammer, Besmaya District
- FOB Headhunter (renamed FOB Independence, 2004)
- FOB Hit, Al Anbar
- FOB Hope, Sadr City
- FOB Hotel, Najaf
- FOB Hunter, Maysan Province
- FOB Independence, Baghdad (formerly FOB Headhunter)
- FOB Iskandariyah, Babil Governate
- FOB Iskan, Iskandariva
- FOB Kalsu, Iskandariya
- FOB Loyalty, Baghdad
- FOB MacKenzie, Samarra
- FOB Mahmudiyah
- FOB Marez, Mosul
- FOB McHenry, Hawija
- FOB Normandy, Muqdadiyah
- FOB Oryan, Balad
- FOB Packhorse, Tikrit (later renamed FOB Remagen)
- FOB Paliwoda, Balad
- FOB Razor, Samarra
- FOB Rough Rider, Kirkuk
- FOB Rustamiyah, Baghdad
- FOB Summerall (Bayji and Taji)
- FOB Sykes (Tall’ Afar)
- FOB Viking, Fallujah
- FOB Warhorse, Baqubah
- FOB Warrior, Kirkuk
Afghanistan Burn Pit Locations
The use of burn pits lasted for a longer period in Afghanistan. In January 2011, 126 out of the 137 small sites, 64 of the 87 medium-size sites, and 7 of the 18 large military sites had operating burn pits.
- FOB Airborne, Wardak
- FOB Altimur, Logar Province
- FOB Anaconda, Uruzgan Province
- FOB Andar, Ghazni Province
- FOB Apache, Zabul Province
- FOB Arian, Ghazni Province
- FOB Asadabad, Konar Province
- FOB Azizullah, Kandahar Province
- FOB Bostick, Kunar Province
- FOB Baylough, Zabul Province
- FOB Camp Wright, Asadabad
- FOB Chapman, Khost Province
- FOB Cobra, Oruzgan Province
- FOB Delaram, Delaram District
- FOB Delhi, Garmsir
- FOB Edinburgh, Helmand Province
- FOB Farah Airfield, Farah Province
- FOB Fenty, Jalalabad
- FOB Geronimo, Helmand Province
- FOB Ghazni, Ghazni Province
- FOB Hansen, Marja District
- FOB Hero, Helmand Province
- FOB Howz-E-Madad, Kandahar
- FOB Joyce, Kunar Province
- FOB Kalagush, Nuristan Province
- FOB Lagman, Qalat
- FOB Lightning, Paktika Province
- FOB Maimaneh, Faryab Province
- FOB Marjah, Helmand Province
- FOB Mehtar Lam, Northern Laghman
- FOB Morales-Frazier, Kapisa Province
- FOB Orgun-East, Paktika
- FOB Pasab, Kandahar Province
- FOB Payne, Helmand Province
- FOB Price, Helmand Province
- FOB Qalat, Zabul Province
- FOB Ramrod, Kandahar
- FOB Rhino, Registan Desert
- FOB Salerno, Khost Province
- FOB Shank, Logar Province
- FOB Sharana, Paktika Province
- FOB Shikvani, Sangin District
- FOB Shindand, Herat Province
- FOB Smart, Zabul Province
- FOB Tarin Kowt, Uruzgan Province
- FOB Thunder, Paktika Province
- FOB Tiger II, Kandahar Province
- FOB Torkham, Nangarhar Province
- FOB Walton, Kandahar
- FOB Waza Kwah, Paktika Province
- FOB Wilson, Kandahar
- FOB Wolverine, Qalat
- FOB Wright, Kunar Province
Djibouti Burn Pit Locations
- Djibouti *Only particulate matter exposure can be confirmed for this location.
A 2004 U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine (CHPPM) study indicated a “moderate” overall risk (due to levels of particulate matter, acrolein, and aluminum in the air) from a burn pit located approximately 2 kilometers (or 1.24 miles) from Camp Lemonier in Djibouti.
This list of burn pit locations is not exhaustive and is subject to change.
Proposed Burn Pit Legislation
There are several major bills currently pending in the Senate, and one in the House of Representatives, related to burn pit toxic exposure. These pieces of legislation aim to aid veterans by streamlining the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) claims process for burn pit and other toxic exposures.
The pending bills are:
- Conceding Our Veterans’ Exposure Now and Necessitating Training Act (COVENANT)
- Presumptive Benefits for War Fighters Exposed to Burn Pits and Other Toxins Act of 2021
- Veterans Burn Pit Exposure Recognition Act
- Toxic Exposure in the American Military Act (TEAM)
Efforts made to provide medical care and compensation to burn pit victims have been plagued by delays on the part of Congress and VA. If passed, these bills would offer much needed relief to veterans suffering from the effects of burn pit exposure.
Veterans exposed to U.S. military burn pits can also document their exposure and health concerns in VA’s Airborne Hazards and Open Burn Pit Registry.
Particulate Matter Presumption: How Does it Relate to Burn Pits?
On August 2, 2021, VA announced that claims for three respiratory conditions – chronic asthma, rhinitis, and sinusitis – were to start being processed on a presumptive basis. The particulate matter presumption extends to veterans diagnosed with chronic asthma, rhinitis, or sinusitis within 10 years of a qualifying period of service in Southwest Asia and certain other areas.
A portion of this particulate matter pollution was produced by U.S. military burn pits, as evident in the toxic chemicals found at Joint Base Balad and other military bases in the Southwest Asia theater of operations.
This announcement served as the first recommendation from a newly formed VA internal process dedicated to supporting rulemaking based on scientific evidence. According to VA, this is only the first of particulate matter presumptions to come.
VA Disability Compensation for Burn Pit Exposure
Veterans who served during Operation Iraqi Freedom, Operation Enduring Freedom, and Operation New Dawn after September 11, 2001 may have been exposed to pollutants from burn pits. VA currently processes most burn pit claims on a case-by-case basis.
To receive disability benefits for a medical condition caused by burn pit exposure, veterans must show evidence of the following:
- A current, disabling medical condition;
- An in-service occurrence (i.e., burn pit exposure);
- Medical evidence or expert medical testimony connecting the disabling condition to burn pit exposure.
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