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CUE “Claims”: How to challenge a final decision

CUE (pronounced like the letter ‘Q’) stands for clear and unmistakable error.  Though they are often referred to as “CUE claims,” CUEs are not actually claims.  Rather, CUE is used as shorthand for “a request for revision based on clear and unmistakable error.”

Essentially, CUEs are a way for a veteran to attack a final decision from the VA.  In order to do this, the veteran must show that the decision in question contained a clear and unmistakable error in fact or error in law.

Why would a veteran file a CUE?

There is no time limit for filing a CUE. So even if a veteran’s claim was decided 20 years ago and was never appealed, filing a CUE could hypothetically allow the veteran to challenge that decision today.

CUEs can be used for claims decided at the VA Regional Office level, at the Board of Veterans Appeals (the Board) level.

NOTE: CUEs should NOT be filed instead of an appeal. If the appeal period is not yet over, submitting an appeal is the easier path because CUEs must meet very strict requirements (see below).

How would a veteran go about filing a CUE?

CUEs are filed with the Regional Office or the Board, whichever made the decision that the vet is challenging.  Requests for revision based on CUE must be very clearly worded and detailed because they have what the Court calls a “pleading requirement.”

“Pleading requirement” is just a fancy way of saying that the person filing must thoroughly address each of the following four requirements (or they have no chance of winning):

  1. The decision being challenged must be a “final decision” from the Regional Office or the Board of Veterans Appeals that was never appealed,
  2. When the decision was made either the correct facts were not before the adjudicator or the regulatory or statutory provisions were incorrectly applied.
  3. The error is “undebatable” – that is, a reasonable person would not disagree that what the VA did was incorrect.
  4. The error must have made a difference in the outcome of the decision. In other words, one must show that the error cost the veteran his or her benefits.

CAUTION: CUE requests are tricky and you only have one chance

Veterans should be very careful with CUE requests because if they do not meet the pleading requirements, they may be barred from filing another one. The VA does not have a “duty to assist” veterans with CUE requests and leaves very little room for error or incompleteness. So it can really help to have someone who is knowledgeable about the law to help meet all the pleading requirements.

Are there certain types of cases that often succeed in CUE requests?

There are certain kinds of cases that may be more likely to win a CUE because VA adjudicators often make legal or factual errors in these types of cases. One such example is a final decision in which the VA reduced a veteran’s award from 100% to a lower percentage. Another example is a final decision in which the claimed disability was related to a wound from a shell fragment, gunshot, or IED.

How are effective dates decided for CUEs?

If you are successful in challenging a past decision based on CUE, the usual rules for effective dates do not apply. Instead, your effective date will be the date you submitted the claim that contained the clear and unmistakable error, meaning the VA will retroactively pay you all the benefits you would have received from that date.

Category: Veterans Law


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